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Simulation Standard

A Journal for Process and Device Engineers

Minimization of Well-Proximity Effect by Means of 2D and 3D Monte Carlo Simulation of Retrograde Well Implantation

The formation of deep p- and n- wells using high-energy implantation has become an integral part of CMOS technology process flow. The high energy and high dose implantation into the cleared area of a thick photoresist mask generates retrograde profiles. These profiles have a relatively high peak concentration usually at the depth of approximately 1 micron and a very low surface concentration. From the first glance this process achieves its primary goal to isolate NFETs from PFETs without affecting surface areas where the transistors are formed. Unfortunately for both technology and circuit designers, this relatively simple process step brings about an unwanted Well Proximity Effect (WPE) [1] exhibited by a strong dependence of threshold voltage Vt on transistor location and even orientation within the well.

3D Simulation of Oxidation Induced Stress Using Cartesian Meshes with Adaptive Refinement

The formation of isolation trenches is one of the key process steps used in power device fabrication. Also the intensive scaling of modern semiconductor devices requires significant stress engineering to enhance carrier mobilities and avoid extended defect formation. Simulation results from complex 3D trench and lateral isolation structures are presented together with the inbuilt oxidation induced mechanical stress in the grown oxides. Fast transition of compressive to tensile stresses has been obtained for concave-convex surfaces with internal hydrostatic pressures ranging from 0.04 to –0.04 N/μm2 .

3D Simulation of Ion Milling for Mass Storage Applications

The ion milling process is used extensively in the Hard Disc Drive industry, particularly in the manufacture of thin film magnetic heads. Ion milling is used to pattern many metal and dielectric materials including alloys comprising of Fe, Co and/or Ni transition metals which are commonly found in a thin film magnetic read-write transducers. This paper presents new results for ion milling and redeposition of gold on photoresist patterns at different milling angles and compared with 3D process simulation results.

Self-Heating effect Simulation of GaN HFET Devices - 4H-SiC and Sapphire Substrate Comparison

GaN-based Hetero-Field Effect Transistors have been investigated in high power and high frequency electronics devices. However, such improved performance is still subject to influence of surface and buffer traps. The role and dynamics of traps and their effect on the GaN HFET have already been investigated [1]. In addition to the formation of the 2DEG, an adequate numerical model of device charge control implies proper modulation of the 2DEG in ATLAS [2].

Modeling of GaInP/GaAs DualJunction Solar Cells Including Tunnel Junction

This paper presents research efforts conducted at the IESUPM in the development of an accurate, physically-based solar cell model using the general-purpose ATLAS device simulator by Silvaco. Unlike solar cell models based on a combination of discrete electrical components, this novel model extracts the electrical characteristics of a solar cell based on virtual fabrication of its physical structure, allowing for direct manipulation of materials, dimensions, and dopings. As single junction solar cells simulation was yet achieved, the next step towards advanced simulations of multi-junction cells (MJC) is the simulation of the tunnel diodes, which interconnect the subcells in a monolithic MJC. The first results simulating a Dual-Junction (DJ) GaInP/GaAs solar cells are shown in this paper including a complete Tunnel Junction (TJ) model and the resonant cavity effect occurring in the bottom cell. Simulation and experimental results were compared in order to test the accuracy of the models employed.

HINTS AND TIPS - May 1998

How can anti-reflective coatings be modeled when simulating photodetectors in ATLAS/Luminous? How can detection efficiency be plotted?
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